Category : National Branch

Seat of Parliament: Kigali

Population: 11,370,425

Constitution: Promulgated on June 4, 2003

Date of Independence: 01 Jul 1962

CPA Branch Formed:

Voting Age: 18

Branch Profile:

Current constitution: June 2003, replacing the constitution of 1995. The new constitution, approved by the Transitional National Assembly in April 2003 and by referendum in May, was signed by the president on 4 June. The head of state is a president, directly elected by universal adult suffrage. Under the 2003 Constitution the president's term of office is seven years, renewable once only. The president appoints the Council of Ministers, whose head is the prime minister. The Legislature, the Parliament (Inteko Ishinga Amategeko), is bicameral. The lower chamber, the Chamber of Deputies (Umutwe Abadepite), has 80 members, of whom 53 are directly elected and 27 are reserved seats 24 for women members elected by the 12 provinces, two representing youth organizations and one representating disabled people?s organizations. The term of office for all members is five years. The upper house, the Senate (Umutwe wa Sena), has 26 members indirectly elected for an eight-year term. Former heads of state can be additional members of the Senate. Principal parties include: Liberal Party (PL); Rwandan Patriotic Front (FPR); Social Democratic Party (PSD). Following the inauguration of President Kagame for a second term on 13 September 2010, Bernard Makuza was reappointed as prime minister; he made no changes to his government at this time. Makuza had first been appointed in March 2000, had been reappointed on 11 October 2003 and had remained in office, with only minor cabinet changes, following the 2008 legislative elections. The broad governing coalition, dominated by the FPR, includes both the PSD and the PL, as well as independents and members of the Centrist Democratic Party, the Idealist Democratic Party, the Socialist Party of Rwanda and the Democratic Union of the Rwandan People. An additional minister in the president's office was appointed on 1 November 2009. A further reshuffle on 29 November included the replacement of the foreign and finance ministers. On 10 April 2010 a new minister of defence was appointed, and his predecessor was moved to the new position of minister for disaster preparedness and refugee affairs. The minister for sport and culture resigned on 24 February 2011. The minister for trade and industry was replaced on 7 May 2011.

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